Scientists have conducted interesting experiments to study the functions of the peptide from the pineal gland.
Pineal gland and melatonin
The pineal gland, or epiphysis, is a hormonal gland the size of a pea that is located in the center of the human brain. It is one of the most important endocrine organs that is responsible for the aging process. The pineal gland converts the serotonin formed in the brain during the day into melatonin in the dark of night. The main task of melatonin is to regulate the daily biological rhythm of the body according to the biorhythms programmed by nature. In particular, melatonin regulates: the activity of the endocrine system, the frequency / rhythm of sleep, blood pressure, the function of brain cells, the function of the digestive tract. Hence, it can be seen as a regulator of the biological clock in the body. Failure of this watch leads to rapid damage to health.
In a young organism, the process of melatonin production functions physiologically normally and without interference. As a rule, the optimal amount of melatonin is always produced. Under the influence of various negative factors on the body, and especially during aging, the intensity of melatonin production sings. Therefore, the internal self-regulation of the body fails, various pathological conditions appear, which can then lead to diseases.
Experiments with monkeys
In 1997, many scientific publications appeared indicating that the peptides of the pineal gland (epiphysis) are completely unusual compounds capable of restoring practically the functions of all organs, endocrine glands, etc. You should have unique skills, so to speak. So the idea arose to test their effect on the primate organism. Like humans, the body of primates is subject to a circadian rhythm. As in humans, the pineal gland in primates also synthesizes melatonin at night.
Scientists have set themselves the task of testing the activity of pineal gland peptides, especially the tetrapeptide Epitalon (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly). Epitalon is a synthetic tetrapeptide, a copy of a biopeptide believed to be the main pineal peptide.
In 2000, two groups of animals were examined for two months. Scientists took young and old rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). First, the scientists studied the level of melatonin secretion in them. It was of course much lower in old monkeys. The animals in one group were then injected with a preparation containing pineal peptide (synthetic tetrapeptide) at a dose of 10 micrograms per animal. The other group received a placebo. It should be noted, however, that 10 micrograms per animal is a very low dose. Typically, all drugs use doses in amounts of milligrams or grams.
The melatonin level was then examined in blood samples from animals. After determining the melatonin levels in all four groups of animals, the scientists found that no changes occurred in young monkeys under the influence of pineal gland peptide, since melatonin secretion was normal in them. Only with old monkeys, in which melatonin secretion decreased, a significant increase in melatonin secretion was found in the evening. Of particular interest was the fact that in older animals the melatonin concentration in the blood reached the same values as were observed in young animals. This means that normally functioning cells of the pineal gland of young monkeys did not use the introduced peptides. This means that peptides only work when needed.
In this experiment, the scientists also found that the ancient animals injected with pineal gland peptide, also looked completely different on the outside. The old monkeys got younger, so to speak. Their fur improved. Their physical activity increased. They started to eat better. The monkeys suddenly became interested in each other because the reproductive time had increased under the action of the pineal gland peptide, which was also shown in another experiment with rats.
Experiment with rats
For this experiment, the scientists used old female rats that has already completed their reproductive phase. None of these rats became pregnant after mating with young male rats. After the introduction of pineal peptides, the oestrus phase in these animals, similar to the menopause in women, decreased from the initial stage from 95% to 52%, and the other cycle phases characteristic of the norm increased from the initial 5% to 48 %. With repeated mating, most rats became pregnant and gave birth to healthy offspring.