Peptide bioregulation - a natural, physiological process of self-regulation of a living organism in which peptides play a key role.
Proteins are the main building block of the body. They also regulate most of the body's vital functions, including the aging processes. Proteins are synthesized in cells. This process is known as protein biosynthesis (protein synthesis). During protein metabolism, proteins eventually break down into small fractions. These fractions are the peptides. Short peptides play an important role in cell metabolism. They stimulate and regulate the process of protein biosynthesis (PBS) - the formation of new proteins in cells and thus the central process of gene expression for all living things, in which proteins are built up from amino acids according to genetic information. Peptides that take part in this process are called regulatory peptides or peptide bioregulators.
Peptide bioregulators (regulatory peptides) are fractions of proteins whose molecules are short chains of amino acids consisting of only 2 to 4 units. Initially, such peptides were isolated from the organs and tissues of animals. Later, such molecules were synthetically reproduced (copied, synthesized).
Since a particular peptide is a particular sequence of amino acids, a peptide is a carrier of unique information. This information determines the selectivity of the action of the peptide. That is, the ability of the peptide to transfer information to a precisely defined cell type. This means that a certain peptide only acts on a strictly specific type of tissue. In this case one speaks of a tissue-specific action.
Peptides regulate the gene activity through complementary binding to a specific region of DNA (this interaction plays a key role in a number of fundamental processes for the storage and transmission of genetic information). Because of this bond, they regulate the spatial shape (conformation) of DNA, gene expression and contribute to the stimulation of protein synthesis. This means that the cell begins to work like in a young and healthy organism - normal / optimal. The physiologically optimal availability of regulatory peptides in the cells is therefore essential for optimal peptide bioregulation.
With age, as well as under the influence of harmful factors or in a diseased state, the intensity of protein synthesis in cells decreases significantly. This also leads to a peptide deficit in the cells and to disturbances in protein biosynthesis. This can consequently lead to functional disorders of the cells and ultimately to functional disorders of the organs and systems.
Through an optimal qualitative and quantitative supply of the body with biologically active peptides, the peptide pool is enriched precisely in the tissue from which these peptides originate. By restoring / normalizing the physiologically normal peptide level, the protein secretion in the cells, hence the "performance" of the cells, can be normalized.
Thus, the short biologically active peptides are essential tissue-specific modulators of gene expression and in many cases modulators of DNA methylation. This means that short peptides can serve as strong epigenetic regulatory signaling molecules that influence gene function and cell differentiation. The molecular mechanisms of the regulatory effect of short peptides have not yet been fully explored. However, there is evidence that peptides can interact site-specific with DNA, manner while recognizing their methylation status.
On this basis, a hypothesis has been proposed that peptides that interact (bind) with methylated DNA promoter sites can interfere with the action of DNA methyltransferases, leaving these sites unmethylated, which in most cases is required for gene expression. This is one of the possible mechanisms for regulating transcription by peptides (peptide bioregulation). The obtained findings that short peptides can reduce the level of promoter methylation fall within the framework of the proposed hypothesis about the mechanisms of transcription regulation with short peptides.