Scientific basis for the use of peptides
Our peptide products are based on scientific knowledge. Many discoveries by leading scientists in medicine, biology, gerontology and other areas clearly show the positive benefits of using peptides. There are many books, academic papers and other publications on the subject. On this page we would like to present some scientific discoveries related to the use of peptides. These discoveries are a solid scientific basis for the use of peptides to support key body systems, bioregulation and prevention of premature aging.
At the end of the XIX century I.I. Metschnikow showed that enhancement of cellular immunity contributed to a lifespan increase. He developed a phagocytic theory of immunity and considered human organism capable of combating pathologic ageing . In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine together with Paul Ehrlich. And only one century later, Peter Doherty and Rolf Zinkernagel conducted detailed studies in specificity of cellular immunity in case of viral infection (the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996).
Metschnikow I. Etudes sur la nature humaine: essai de philosophie optimiste // Paris: Masson. – 1903. – P. 399.
Nozdrachev A.D., Marjanovich A.T., Polyakov E.L., Sybarov D.A., Khavinson V.Kh. Nobelpreise in der Physiologie oder Medizin für 100 Jahren // St. Petersburg: Gumanistika. - 2002. – S. 688.
Marshall Nirenberg and Gobind Khorana
Many years of scientific work by Marshall Nirenberg and Gobind Khorana led to the decoding of the genetic code and the definition of codons (triplets of nucleotides) for each of twenty amino acids. In 1968 Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis".
Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
Fundamental investigation in nucleic acids biochemistry and identification of RNA and DNA bases sequence were conducted in the 60-70ies of the XX century by Paul Berg, Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger. For their work, the scientists received the Nobel Prize in 1980. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980 was divided, one half awarded to Paul Berg "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA", the other half jointly to Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids".
Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson, Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
American biochemist James Dewey Watson, along with Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin, discovered the molecular structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). For your discovery, the scientists were awarded the Nobel Prize. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962 was awarded jointly to Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material".
Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids: A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. In: Nature. 1953, 171, S. 737–738.
Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose
The origin of small regulatory peptides pool in a young organism became evident after the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation in proteasomes made by Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko, Irwin Rose. Small peptides were shown to play an important role for transmission of biologic information, as for example autocrine hormones and neuropeptides do. A high molecular protein can be hydrolyzed in different ways, degradating into several small peptides. Due to this mechanism there can be produced peptides with completely different biologic functions as compared to the maternal macromolecule. The scientists were awarded the 2004 Nobel Prize for their work. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 was awarded jointly to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".
Ivanov V.T., Karelin A.A., Philippova M.M. et al. Hemoglobin as a source of endogenous bioactive peptides: the concept of tissue-specific peptide pool // Biopolymers. – 1997. – V. 43, N 2. – P. 171–188.
American mathematician Samuel Karlin proved in his works that there are several types of recurring blocks of amino acid residues with charged side chains in protein macromolecules: transcription factors, centromer proteins and highly mobile protein groups. Proteasome hydrolysis of these proteins in the cell nucleus can provide for a sufficient amount of peptide complexes with charged side groups.
Karlin S., Altschul S.F., Method for assessing the statistical significance of molecular sequence features by using general scoring schemes. // Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, – 1990, – V. 87, N 6, – P. 2264–2268.
Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod
In 1961 Francois Jacob and Jacques Monod suggested a model of genetic regulation of protein synthesis with the participation of low-molecular ligand, which ousts repressor and triggers allosteric conformational transition in the DNA structure of bacterial cell. In 1965 they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine along with Andry Lwoff "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis".
Jacob F., Monod J. Genetic regulation mechanisms in the synthesis of proteins // J. Mol. Biol. - 1961. - V.3. - P. 318–356.
Nozdrachev A.D., Marjanovich A.T., Polyakov E.L., Sybarov D.A., Khavinson V.Kh. Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 100 years // SPb .: Gumanistika. - 2002. - P. 688.
Prof. Dr. H. Dyckerhoff
More than 50 years ago, Professor Dr. H. Dyckerhoff developed a proven therapeutic concept that was based on the realization that degenerative processes on the cellular level are often expressed in a permanently disturbed protein synthesis. In particular, ribonucleic acids are key elements of protein synthesis, on the one hand as an information carrier for the structure of each protein, on the other as a building material for important cell structures, but also as tools in the cascade of protein synthesis. Prof. Dyckerhoff has already assumed the importance of especially ribonucleic acids, although essential aspects of their function were not yet known at this time. Numerous scientific studies today demonstrate the favorable influence of the nucleic acids on protein biosynthesis and on other important metabolic processes in the immune system, the hormonal system and the formation of body-specific nucleic acids. Any disturbance of this metabolism leads to premature aging processes, often accompanied by a loss of body-borne nucleic acids.
V.Kh. Khavinson and V.G.Morozov
V.Kh. Khavinson and V.G.Morozov have established in 70-80 years that the aging and development of the disease - is the result of a lasting stress on the body. It has been shown that the organism first attempts to adapt to the extreme conditions in which the functions of the neuroendocrine system, the immune system, the cardiovascular system and the brain tissue are strongly stressed. But this voltage is short-lived, after which comes the breakdown of the functions of the above-mentioned systems. In organs and tissues, where support is lacking, functional disorders develop very quickly. The body literally begins to break and age. And all these changes arise against the background of the peptide deficiency and gene function disorders. It has also been shown that restoring the qualitative and quantitative composition of peptides normalizes the basic physiological functions of organs and tissues.
Iwai K., Hasegawa T., Taguchi Y., Morimatsu F.
In recent years of intensive research the action mechanism was elucidated, Investigating the bioavailability and efficacy of collagen peptides (collagen hydrolysate). Collagen hydrolysate is digested in the gastrointestinal tract and predominately broken down to single amino acids and di-peptides as demonstrated on healthy volunteers. A significant increase of free- and di-peptides bound hydroxyproline was measured in blood plasma of the test persons. The results of some scientific studies show that the use of collagen peptides as a supportive therapeutic measure for chronic joint instability is a promising approach. The positive development of functionality and pain relief was already noticeable after an intervention period of 3 months.
Iwai K, Hasegawa T, Taguchi Y, Morimatsu F, Sato K, Nakamura Y, Higashi A, Kido Y, Nakabo Y, Ohtsuki K, 2005. Identification of food-derived collagen peptides in human blood after oral ingestion of gelatin hydrolysates. J Agric Food Chem, 53, 6531 – 6536.
Oesser S., Adam M., Babel W., Seifert J.
In an experimental study it was demonstrated that 95% of the orally applied collagen hydrolysate was absorbed from the intestine within 12h after administration. Moreover, the results indicated that collagen hydrolysate is absorbed in a high-molecular form to some extent with peptides up to 10 kDa and that these peptides subsequently accumulate in cartilage tissue. It was calculated that the estimated amount of these peptides, detected in the cartilage could reach concentrations that, are sufficient to stimulate chondrocyte metabolism, as observed in cell culture experiments.
Steffen Oesser, Adam M, Babel W, Seifert J, 1999. Oral administration of 14 C labeled gelatin hydrolysate leads to an accumulation of radioactivity in cartilage of mice (C57/BL). JNutr, 129, 1891 – 1895.